Description

Base class for joints betwenn two ChBodyFrame objects.

Links are objects which can be created to constrain two rigid bodies (i.e. objects from the ChBody class) in 3D space, like with revolute joints, guides, etc.

Note that there are many specializations of this base class, for example the ChLinkEngine class inherits this base class and implements specific functions to represent an engine between two bodies, etc. etc. (In fact, this base ChLink class does basically nothing unless it is specialized by some child class).

#include <ChLink.h>

Inheritance diagram for chrono::ChLink:
Collaboration diagram for chrono::ChLink:

Public Member Functions

 ChLink (const ChLink &other)
 
virtual ChLinkClone () const override
 "Virtual" copy constructor (covariant return type).
 
int GetLeftDOF ()
 Get the number of free degrees of freedom left by this link, between two bodies.
 
virtual int GetNumCoords () override
 Get the number of scalar variables affected by constraints in this link.
 
ChBodyFrameGetBody1 ()
 Get the constrained body '1', the 'slave' body.
 
ChBodyFrameGetBody2 ()
 Get the constrained body '2', the 'master' body.
 
virtual ChCoordsys GetLinkRelativeCoords ()
 Get the link coordinate system, expressed relative to Body2 (the 'master' body). More...
 
virtual ChCoordsys GetLinkAbsoluteCoords () override
 Get the link coordinate system in absolute reference. More...
 
virtual ChVector Get_react_force () override
 To get reaction force, expressed in link coordinate system:
 
virtual ChVector Get_react_torque () override
 To get reaction torque, expressed in link coordinate system:
 
virtual int RestoreRedundant ()
 If some constraint is redundant, return to normal state //***OBSOLETE***.
 
virtual void UpdateTime (double mytime)
 Given new time, current body state, update time-dependent quantities in link state, for example motion laws, moving markers, etc. More...
 
virtual void Update (double mytime, bool update_assets=true) override
 This is an important function, which is called by the owner ChSystem at least once per integration step. More...
 
virtual void Update (bool update_assets=true) override
 As above, but with current time.
 
virtual void UpdatedExternalTime (double prevtime, double time)
 Called from a external package (i.e. More...
 
virtual void ArchiveOUT (ChArchiveOut &marchive) override
 Method to allow serialization of transient data to archives.
 
virtual void ArchiveIN (ChArchiveIn &marchive) override
 Method to allow deserialization of transient data from archives.
 
- Public Member Functions inherited from chrono::ChPhysicsItem
 ChPhysicsItem (const ChPhysicsItem &other)
 
ChSystemGetSystem () const
 Get the pointer to the parent ChSystem()
 
virtual void SetSystem (ChSystem *m_system)
 Set the pointer to the parent ChSystem() and also add to new collision system / remove from old coll.system.
 
void AddAsset (std::shared_ptr< ChAsset > masset)
 Add an optional asset (it can be used to define visualization shapes, es ChSphereShape, or textures, or custom attached properties that the user can define by creating his class inherited from ChAsset)
 
std::vector< std::shared_ptr
< ChAsset > > & 
GetAssets ()
 Access to the list of optional assets.
 
std::shared_ptr< ChAssetGetAssetN (unsigned int num)
 Access the Nth asset in the list of optional assets.
 
virtual unsigned int GetAssetsFrameNclones ()
 Optionally, a ChPhysicsItem can return multiple asset coordinate systems; this can be helpful if, for example, when a ChPhysicsItem contains 'clones' with the same assets (ex. More...
 
virtual bool GetCollide () const
 Tell if the object is subject to collision. More...
 
virtual void SyncCollisionModels ()
 If this physical item contains one or more collision models, sinchronize their coordinates and bounding boxes to the state of the item. More...
 
virtual void AddCollisionModelsToSystem ()
 If this physical item contains one or more collision models, add them to the system's collision engine. More...
 
virtual void RemoveCollisionModelsFromSystem ()
 If this physical item contains one or more collision models, remove them from the system's collision engine. More...
 
virtual void GetTotalAABB (ChVector<> &bbmin, ChVector<> &bbmax)
 Get the entire AABB axis-aligned bounding box of the object. More...
 
virtual void GetCenter (ChVector<> &mcenter)
 Get a symbolic 'center' of the object. More...
 
virtual void StreamINstate (ChStreamInBinary &mstream)
 Method to deserialize only the state (position, speed) Must be implemented by child classes. More...
 
virtual void StreamOUTstate (ChStreamOutBinary &mstream)
 Method to serialize only the state (position, speed) Must be implemented by child classes. More...
 
virtual void Setup ()
 This might recompute the number of coordinates, DOFs, constraints, in case this might change (ex in ChAssembly), as well as state offsets of contained items (ex in ChMesh)
 
virtual void SetNoSpeedNoAcceleration ()
 Set zero speed (and zero accelerations) in state, without changing the position. More...
 
virtual int GetDOF ()
 Get the number of scalar coordinates (variables), if any, in this item. More...
 
virtual int GetDOF_w ()
 Get the number of scalar coordinates of variables derivatives (usually = DOF, but might be different than DOF, ex. More...
 
virtual int GetDOC ()
 Get the number of scalar constraints, if any, in this item.
 
virtual int GetDOC_c ()
 Get the number of scalar constraints, if any, in this item (only bilateral constr.) Children classes might override this. More...
 
virtual int GetDOC_d ()
 Get the number of scalar constraints, if any, in this item (only unilateral constr.) Children classes might override this. More...
 
unsigned int GetOffset_x ()
 Get offset in the state vector (position part)
 
unsigned int GetOffset_w ()
 Get offset in the state vector (speed part)
 
unsigned int GetOffset_L ()
 Get offset in the lagrangian multipliers.
 
void SetOffset_x (const unsigned int moff)
 Set offset in the state vector (position part) Note: only the ChSystem::Setup function should use this.
 
void SetOffset_w (const unsigned int moff)
 Set offset in the state vector (speed part) Note: only the ChSystem::Setup function should use this.
 
void SetOffset_L (const unsigned int moff)
 Set offset in the lagrangian multipliers Note: only the ChSystem::Setup function should use this.
 
virtual void IntStateGather (const unsigned int off_x, ChState &x, const unsigned int off_v, ChStateDelta &v, double &T)
 From item's state to global state vectors y={x,v} pasting the states at the specified offsets. More...
 
virtual void IntStateScatter (const unsigned int off_x, const ChState &x, const unsigned int off_v, const ChStateDelta &v, const double T)
 From global state vectors y={x,v} to item's state (and update) fetching the states at the specified offsets. More...
 
virtual void IntStateGatherAcceleration (const unsigned int off_a, ChStateDelta &a)
 From item's state acceleration to global acceleration vector. More...
 
virtual void IntStateScatterAcceleration (const unsigned int off_a, const ChStateDelta &a)
 From global acceleration vector to item's state acceleration. More...
 
virtual void IntStateGatherReactions (const unsigned int off_L, ChVectorDynamic<> &L)
 From item's reaction forces to global reaction vector. More...
 
virtual void IntStateScatterReactions (const unsigned int off_L, const ChVectorDynamic<> &L)
 From global reaction vector to item's reaction forces. More...
 
virtual void IntStateIncrement (const unsigned int off_x, ChState &x_new, const ChState &x, const unsigned int off_v, const ChStateDelta &Dv)
 Computes x_new = x + Dt , using vectors at specified offsets. More...
 
virtual void IntLoadResidual_F (const unsigned int off, ChVectorDynamic<> &R, const double c)
 Takes the F force term, scale and adds to R at given offset: R += c*F. More...
 
virtual void IntLoadResidual_Mv (const unsigned int off, ChVectorDynamic<> &R, const ChVectorDynamic<> &w, const double c)
 Takes the M*v term, multiplying mass by a vector, scale and adds to R at given offset: R += c*M*w. More...
 
virtual void IntLoadResidual_CqL (const unsigned int off_L, ChVectorDynamic<> &R, const ChVectorDynamic<> &L, const double c)
 Takes the term Cq'*L, scale and adds to R at given offset: R += c*Cq'*L. More...
 
virtual void IntLoadConstraint_C (const unsigned int off, ChVectorDynamic<> &Qc, const double c, bool do_clamp, double recovery_clamp)
 Takes the term C, scale and adds to Qc at given offset: Qc += c*C. More...
 
virtual void IntLoadConstraint_Ct (const unsigned int off, ChVectorDynamic<> &Qc, const double c)
 Takes the term Ct, scale and adds to Qc at given offset: Qc += c*Ct. More...
 
virtual void IntToDescriptor (const unsigned int off_v, const ChStateDelta &v, const ChVectorDynamic<> &R, const unsigned int off_L, const ChVectorDynamic<> &L, const ChVectorDynamic<> &Qc)
 Prepare variables and constraints for a solution: From a vector R into the F 'force' term of the variables From a vector Qc into the Qb 'constraint' term of the constraints From a vector v into the q 'unknowns' term of the variables (for warm starting) From a vector L into the L 'lagrangian ' term of the constraints (for warm starting) More...
 
virtual void IntFromDescriptor (const unsigned int off_v, ChStateDelta &v, const unsigned int off_L, ChVectorDynamic<> &L)
 After a solver solution, fetch values from variables and constraints: To a vector v from the q 'unknowns' term of the variables To a vector L from the L 'lagrangian ' term of the constraints. More...
 
virtual void VariablesFbReset ()
 Sets the 'fb' part (the known term) of the encapsulated ChVariables to zero.
 
virtual void VariablesFbLoadForces (double factor=1)
 Adds the current forces (applied to item) into the encapsulated ChVariables, in the 'fb' part: qf+=forces*factor.
 
virtual void VariablesQbLoadSpeed ()
 Initialize the 'qb' part of the ChVariables with the current value of speeds. More...
 
virtual void VariablesFbIncrementMq ()
 Adds M*q (masses multiplied current 'qb') to Fb, ex. More...
 
virtual void VariablesQbSetSpeed (double step=0)
 Fetches the item speed (ex. More...
 
virtual void VariablesQbIncrementPosition (double step)
 Increment item positions by the 'qb' part of the ChVariables, multiplied by a 'step' factor. More...
 
virtual void InjectVariables (ChSystemDescriptor &mdescriptor)
 Tell to a system descriptor that there are variables of type ChVariables in this object (for further passing it to a solver) Basically does nothing, but maybe that inherited classes may specialize this. More...
 
virtual void InjectConstraints (ChSystemDescriptor &mdescriptor)
 Tell to a system descriptor that there are contraints of type ChConstraint in this object (for further passing it to a solver) Basically does nothing, but maybe that inherited classes may specialize this. More...
 
virtual void ConstraintsBiReset ()
 Sets to zero the known term (b_i) of encapsulated ChConstraints.
 
virtual void ConstraintsBiLoad_C (double factor=1, double recovery_clamp=0.1, bool do_clamp=false)
 Adds the current C (constraint violation) to the known term (b_i) of encapsulated ChConstraints.
 
virtual void ConstraintsBiLoad_Ct (double factor=1)
 Adds the current Ct (partial t-derivative, as in C_dt=0-> [Cq]*q_dt=-Ct) to the known term (b_i) of encapsulated ChConstraints.
 
virtual void ConstraintsBiLoad_Qc (double factor=1)
 Adds the current Qc (the vector of C_dtdt=0 -> [Cq]*q_dtdt=Qc ) to the known term (b_i) of encapsulated ChConstraints.
 
virtual void ConstraintsFbLoadForces (double factor=1)
 Adds the current link-forces, if any, (caused by springs, etc.) to the 'fb' vectors of the ChVariables referenced by encapsulated ChConstraints.
 
virtual void ConstraintsLoadJacobians ()
 Adds the current jacobians in encapsulated ChConstraints.
 
virtual void ConstraintsFetch_react (double factor=1)
 Fetches the reactions from the lagrangian multiplier (l_i) of encapsulated ChConstraints. More...
 
virtual void InjectKRMmatrices (ChSystemDescriptor &mdescriptor)
 Tell to a system descriptor that there are items of type ChKblock in this object (for further passing it to a solver) Basically does nothing, but maybe that inherited classes may specialize this. More...
 
virtual void KRMmatricesLoad (double Kfactor, double Rfactor, double Mfactor)
 Adds the current stiffness K and damping R and mass M matrices in encapsulated ChKblock item(s), if any. More...
 
- Public Member Functions inherited from chrono::ChObj
 ChObj (const ChObj &other)
 
int GetIdentifier () const
 Gets the numerical identifier of the object.
 
void SetIdentifier (int id)
 Sets the numerical identifier of the object.
 
double GetChTime () const
 Gets the simulation time of this object.
 
void SetChTime (double m_time)
 Sets the simulation time of this object.
 
const char * GetName () const
 Gets the name of the object as C Ascii null-terminated string -for reading only!
 
void SetName (const char myname[])
 Sets the name of this object, as ascii string.
 
std::string GetNameString () const
 Gets the name of the object as C Ascii null-terminated string.
 
void SetNameString (const std::string &myname)
 Sets the name of this object, as std::string.
 
void MFlagsSetAllOFF (int &mflag)
 
void MFlagsSetAllON (int &mflag)
 
void MFlagSetON (int &mflag, int mask)
 
void MFlagSetOFF (int &mflag, int mask)
 
int MFlagGet (int &mflag, int mask)
 

Protected Attributes

ChBodyFrameBody1
 first connected body
 
ChBodyFrameBody2
 second connected body
 
ChVector react_force
 store the xyz reactions, expressed in local coordinate system of link;
 
ChVector react_torque
 store the torque reactions, expressed in local coordinate system of link;
 
- Protected Attributes inherited from chrono::ChPhysicsItem
ChSystemsystem
 parent system
 
std::vector< std::shared_ptr
< ChAsset > > 
assets
 set of assets
 
unsigned int offset_x
 offset in vector of state (position part)
 
unsigned int offset_w
 offset in vector of state (speed part)
 
unsigned int offset_L
 offset in vector of lagrangian multipliers
 
- Protected Attributes inherited from chrono::ChObj
double ChTime
 the time of simulation for the object
 

Member Function Documentation

virtual ChCoordsys chrono::ChLink::GetLinkAbsoluteCoords ( )
overridevirtual

Get the link coordinate system in absolute reference.

This represents the 'main' reference of the link: reaction forces and reaction torques are expressed in this coordinate system. Child classes should implement this.

Reimplemented from chrono::ChLinkBase.

virtual ChCoordsys chrono::ChLink::GetLinkRelativeCoords ( )
virtual

Get the link coordinate system, expressed relative to Body2 (the 'master' body).

This represents the 'main' reference of the link: reaction forces and reaction torques are expressed in this coordinate system. By default is in the origin of Body2, but child classes should implement this.

Reimplemented in chrono::ChLinkMarkers, chrono::ChLinkMateGeneric, chrono::ChLinkRevoluteTranslational, chrono::ChLinkDistance, chrono::ChLinkRevoluteSpherical, chrono::ChLinkRevolute, and chrono::ChLinkUniversal.

void chrono::ChLink::Update ( double  mytime,
bool  update_assets = true 
)
overridevirtual

This is an important function, which is called by the owner ChSystem at least once per integration step.

It may update all auxiliary data of the link, such as matrices if any, etc. The inherited classes, for example the ChLinkMask, often implement specialized versions of this Update(time) function, because they might need to update inner states, forces, springs, etc. This base version, by default, simply updates the time.

Reimplemented from chrono::ChPhysicsItem.

Reimplemented in chrono::ChLinkMateOrthogonal, chrono::ChLinkMateXdistance, chrono::ChLinkMatePlane, chrono::ChLinkMasked, chrono::ChLinkMateGeneric, chrono::ChLinkMarkers, chrono::ChLinkRevoluteTranslational, chrono::ChLinkRevoluteSpherical, chrono::ChLinkDistance, chrono::ChLinkUniversal, and chrono::ChLinkRevolute.

virtual void chrono::ChLink::UpdatedExternalTime ( double  prevtime,
double  time 
)
virtual

Called from a external package (i.e.

a plugin, a CAD app.) to report that time has changed. Most often you can leave this unimplemented.

Reimplemented in chrono::ChLinkEngine.

void chrono::ChLink::UpdateTime ( double  mytime)
virtual

Given new time, current body state, update time-dependent quantities in link state, for example motion laws, moving markers, etc.

Default: do nothing except setting new time.

Reimplemented in chrono::ChLinkLock, chrono::ChLinkEngine, chrono::ChLinkTrajectory, chrono::ChLinkPulley, chrono::ChLinkGear, chrono::ChLinkLinActuator, chrono::ChLinkPneumaticActuator, chrono::ChLinkRackpinion, chrono::ChLinkBrake, chrono::ChLinkPointSpline, and chrono::ChLinkClearance.